今回は発達障害のなかで，⃝自閉症スペクトラム障害（ASD：Autism Spectrum Disorders）⃝注意欠陥多動性障害（AD/HD：Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder）⃝学習障害（LD：Learning Disorder）⃝知的発達障害（IDD：Intellectual Developmental Disorder ）について簡単に示してみる。
Abstract: In recent years, cases diagnosed as developmental disorders are increasing. As such, developmental disorders are being covered more by mass media such as television and newspaper, and they are receiving more attention from society. According to research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 9.8% of children need some form of help in the first grade of elementary school to deal with developmental disorders. We must now think of these as important public health problems. At this time, major developmental disorders are the following:
• ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorders
• AD/HD: Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder
• LD: Learning Disorder
• IDD: Intellectual Developmental Disorder
Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations (ESSENCE), advocated by Christopher Gillberg, is important in clinical practice and research. Autism, AD/HD, Tourette syndrome, SLI, IDD, DCD, etc., overlap to a marked degree throughout life and are often not clearly separable in children under the age of five years. All children with problems identified with ESSENCE need to have follow-up studies. Even though refined diagnosis is needed in all cases, during early stages of diagnosis, ESSENCE may be the only "safe" label. ESSENCE can highlight the risk factors leading to adolescent/adult academic failure, social exclusion, and antisocial personality disorders. Early intervention does make a difference. Therefore, all advanced societies need to increase their understanding and disseminate their knowledge about ESSENCE.