The cause of cervical cancer has been clearly identified as HPV (human papillomavirus). An approach has been commenced for the prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal cancer, anal cancer, vulvar/vaginal cancer, and penile cancer as HPV-related cancers. There are two major preventative tools for cervical cancer: cancer screening and HPV vaccine. Yet both of these tools are weakly positioned due to a number of problems specific to Japan. For the sake of public health, Japan needs to be thorough in carr ying out a comprehensive vaccination policy and cancer screenings. This can also be perceived as a large issue on an international level. Among oropharyngeal cancers, etc., those that are HPV-positive cancers tend to have better treatment response than conventional (non-HPV related) types, along with certain other characteristics. Attempts are underway to improve the methods of treatment.